Day 9: Berlin NH Area

The last area of New Hampshire turned out to be quite a treasure trove of New Deal projects. Near Gorham is Moose Brook State Park, a wonderful example of Civilian Conservation Corp. craftsmanship. Examples of their work were everywhere in the well maintained park which people were enjoying quite a bit.

Moose Brook State Park entrance
Park admission building
CCC plaque
Admission building fireplace
CCC built bridge
CCC built pond
CCC constructed meeting barn
CCC constructed staircase
CCC constructed patio area

Please keep in mind that most work done by the young men of the CCC was accomplished using hand tools with very little power equipment. Once I was finished getting pictures at Moose Brook, it was time to head on. Berlin was a major detour in the journey, but important because of the number of projects I had discovered thanks to the town reports that are available thanks to the University of New Hampshire but didn’t have pictures. An interesting aspect of the local political situation was the leadership of Mayor Arthur Bergeron of the Farmer-Labor Party, a local third party reaction to local corruption formed in 1934 that fully utilized Federal sponsored projects to help deal with the very bad unemployment situation.

York Street Underpass
Built by the Boston Bridge Works Inc. 1937
York St Underpass Date Stamp

The York Street Overpass was built with the help of the PWA LINK The condition of the bridge was pretty bad. A lot of the concrete was flaking off and crumbling away and the bridge was very rusty. Its owned by the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad which is a subsidiary of Genesee & Wyoming Inc. 

Veterans Memorial Park
Veterans Memorial Park
283 Main St retaining wall

An interesting project was the Main street retaining wall. Like a lot of New Deal projects, construction was of rubble wall style, and included a bench and the top of the wall incorporated a planter with flowers. You’re reminded of the stark difference between these “utilitarian” projects then and the bare concrete structures that are used now.

Berlin Bowling

Across the street from the wall was an Art Deco building that has the town bowling alley. Somewhat worse for wear, considering the age and the rather poor condition of the town in general.

History of the Berlin Airport

Heading north out of town, the intention was to get a picture of the airport which is in the next town over oddly enough, up in Milan. After talking with the manager, he corrected me that the old airport was a little south next to the ski jump and showed me this newspaper article to that effect. The runway would have been a little to the right of where my truck is parked.

Location of the former Berlin airfield.

Too bad that there wasn’t time to go explore this project. Though not in use as an active ski jump, its still maintained for potential future use and has been repaired. My father recounts having jumped here in his past.

Historical Marker
information sign

With that, it was time to get back on the road and get going.

Day 9: Vermont and New Hampshire

Having slept at a highway rest stop near Charlestown NH, it wasn’t long before I was on my way. Since time was short, I wasn’t going to spend a lot of time looking for New Deal projects but get the trailer back to UHaul and hopefully run into a few along the way. At some point heading north on I91, I pulled off the highway at Fairlee VT because there was a gas station that was open very early in the morning. After gassing up and getting some coffee, it seemed like a good idea to start heading north on route 5 since going through the small towns that line the Connecticut River seemed the best way to get home by seeing the country. Thankfully there was a good diner along the way so that I could get a regular breakfast at Anthony’s Diner in St. Johnsbury VT. This was also my turnoff to get on Route 2 heading east that would take me straight to Skowhegan, my end point.

Green Mountain Electric Supply

Before leaving town, there was this unusual Art Deco inspired commercial building at 109 Portland St. New England towns are usually dominated by turn of the century buildings so this was odd. About 21 miles into the trip, I came across a really small town Lunenburg Vt. Since the town office was open, it seemed a good idea to go in and ask to see the town reports. Luckily, the clerk was helpful and let me into a cramped back room. All the reports were loosely kept in a cardboard box without any order. After getting pictures of the New Deal related info, and chatting with a stranger about what I was researching, it was time to continue.

1939 Lunenburg Town Report

As an example of a New Deal project, the above entry refers to the National Youth Administration, one of the late programs that emphasized youth employment and training. However, this is the kind of thing that you can’t find since the rural schools were all discontinued many years ago.

New Hampshire border

You can see the light at the end of the tunnel! It was hard to imagine that I was almost finished! The town at the NH border is Lancaster. When I came upon their Post Office, I was surprised to see a classic building that wasn’t listed on the website. My fellow research associate Evan Kalish who runs a post office centered website POSTLANDIA has done a yeomans job in covering New Deal post offices but he seems to have missed this one. After checking the cornerstone which dates it to 1935, I checked if there was a mural which there wasn’t. The clerk I talked with was pretty sure that there never was one.

Lancaster NH post office

Lancaster NH post office cornerstone

The next town over was Jefferson which features the amusement park Santa’s Village. Our family visited it and other sites many years ago so it was surprising to run across it again. Like Lunenburg, since the town office was open, I stopped in to ask to see the town reports. The reports were collected into books thankfully, however there was very little mention of the New Deal. Only a few projects like school repairs or road projects were mentioned. Since a lot of small town reports only report what the town actually spent money on, it doesn’t reflect what was actually being done if its a post office (built by the Treasury Dept.) for instance or a Civilian Conservation Corp. project.

Day 8: Eastern New York and Vermont

After paying my respects to my favorite author, it was time to head east. Instead of going north in order to get back on route 20, I made the decision to instead take the back roads and use I88. First was Co. Rd. 52, then east on NY-166, right on NY-165, South on NY-10, then I88 east. It was 60 miles from Cooperstown to Schenectady, where the main downtown Post Office was. A 1911 Post Office that the New Deal made some additions to. LINK

Schenectady Post Office
Schenectady Post Office
Detail of Schenectady Post Office bas relief work.

As you can see from the shadows, it was late in the day. Getting on Route 7, it was 45 miles to Bennington Vermont.

Vermont border 8:55pm

As you can see, it was pitch black due to the overcast skies. My cellphone didn’t take very good night time photos, but it was fun to document how far I’d come so far. It was getting rather hilly at this point. After arriving in Bennington, around 9:15 or so, I was very disappointed that nothing was open except a downtown bar. It would have been cool to get an ice cream to celebrate but nope, there wasn’t even a local gas station that was open and the downtown was relatively deserted.

Continuing east on Route 9, it was 40 miles to Brattleboro Vermont and arrived about midnight. Since my leg was cramping I decided to park downtown and go for a stroll down by the river. I was quickly joined by a young woman who was obviously high on something. She said she was bored and hinted at “doing” something and was insistent that I go with her someplace. Ignoring her, I casually strolled through the downtown and admired some of the downtown buildings, (they have a very nice Art Deco building at the corner of High and Main St.). Complaining that I was ignoring her babbling outbursts, she wandered off. Knowing how bad the opioid situation is in places like Vermont, it seemed best to let that go.

Jumping on I91, I think I made it north for an hour before tiredness made me pull over at a rest stop on the highway and sleep for the night.

Day 8: Central New York

Cazenovia Lake historical marker

It was 40 miles from Auburn to Cazenovia. A pleasant community on the banks of a lake. At the time, no New deal projects were listed on the website and still aren’t, but after a little searching, a few websites list quite a few New Deal projects in town and Western New York, Buffalo in a particular! LINK The lake gave me a good excuse to stop and go wading in the water for a bit.

Cazenovia Town Office

This is the Cazenovia Municipal building. I honestly don’t recall why I got a picture since its not listed as a New Deal project and required at least 10 minutes to find a parking spot. I think that I might have found a reference online by chance that I forgot about later. It represents a well kept example of the multipurpose municipal building which often would house the city manager, fire department, police, library, etc.

33 and a half miles away from Cazenovia, I ran across the Bridgewater station in a very small town. It was built in 1901 by the Unadilla Valley Railway and also served the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. 1960 was the year it was discontinued and is used by the Bridgewater Historical society.

Cooperstown Post Office
Cooperstown Post Office cornerstone

One of the few detours on the trip was the side trip to Cooperstown NY which was 28.8 miles from Bridgewater. The town is more well known for the invention of baseball, but I was there more to see its most illustrious native, the author James Fenimore Cooper. First stop of course was the New Deal post office and its bronze relief depicting James Fenimore Cooper, Natty Bumppo and Chief Chingachgook produced by Victor Salvatore under the Treasury Relief Art Project (TRAP) program.

James Fenimore Cooper mural
James Fenimore Cooper Statue
Cooper Gravesite

LINK To learn about the amazing life of Mr. Cooper, check out this video from August 17, 2013 in Los Angeles Ca. My friend Patrick Ruckert gave a class on James Fenimore Cooper, who in addition to being a great novelist, was a central figure of the second generation of American patriotic leaders defending the United States during the first half of the 19th Century. Our British enemies labeled him the “literary antagonist of the monarchy, aristocracy and feudality of all Europe, and particularly England.” This is the real story.

Mexican President Revives FDR to Save His Country

Mexican President Cites Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal As Solution To 30 Years Of Economic Suicide

With the outbreak of the Covid-19 virus earlier this year, the country of Mexico found itself in a dire situation due to a severe shortage of ICU facilities and trained personel. Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) insisted that the novel coronavirus pandemic is proof that the “neo-liberal” economic system of past decades has failed, and that new policies must be adopted. In an address to the nation on April 5, and again in his press conference the next day, he cited Franklin Delano Roosevelt as an alternative model to be adopted. “This is the magnitude of the failure of the neo-liberal policy. This is one of the most perverse outcomes of the policy that was imposed for 36 years,” he exclaimed. “That is why it is surprising that there are people … who defend the neo-liberal model, despite its clear failure, because this is not just some ideological or political matter…. Why don’t we have doctors? Why don’t we have specialists?”

Later in that press conference, López Obrador pointed to the two paradigms contending worldwide today: “We are thinking about what is going to be the model to be pursued…. Because what I am seeing, is that the neo-liberal model is collapsing. That is what is happening; that is, the coronavirus precipitated the fall of a failed model…. “How is it possible that the pandemic has such a huge effect, economically and socially? … Among other things, social investment was stopped; healthcare was privatized. There are countries today which do not have public services for the population. They are the ones worst hit.”

It is an absurdity that people want to apply “the same old recipes,” he went on. “Changes must be made. What did President [Franklin] Roosevelt do in a situation like this, which is a model? Reactivate the economy with investment; employment for everyone; a minimum salary for everyone, especially the youth. Reactivate the construction industry. That is how he lifted up the United States and returned tranquility, happiness to his people…. So, why not do the same thing today?”

In mid June, he instructed Juan Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico’s representative before the United Nations, where Mexico was elected to serve as a non-permanent member of the Securtiy Council, to promote “the fulfillment of the four fundamental freedoms proclaimed by President Roosevelt,” freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from fear, and freedom from want.” While Democrats in the United States give lip service to President Roosevelt while at the same time disavowing his policies, AMLO has brought about radical changes in Mexico much in the manner of past reformer presidents,

Benito Juárez (1858-1872), Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (1934-1940) and José López Portillo (1976-1982). In his 2018 book A New Hope For Mexico, AMLO said “In Mexico the governing class constitutes a gang of plunderers… Mexico will not grow strong if our public institutions remain at the service of the wealthy elites.” Now that he is president, AMLO has actually made significant changes – purging the government of technocrats and institutions that exemplify and adhere to Neo-Liberal policies; substantially increasing minimum wage; cutting top government salaries; making small loans and grants to farmers; parity prices for key agricultural crops; programs to benefit youth, disabled and the elderly; the goal of the construction of government-subsidized housing between 600,000 and 1 million homes that would be sold or rented at low prices to the poor, and 147 projects in highways, railways, ports, airports, and telecommunications totaling 859 billion pesos ($44 billion). As he stated early on, the goal is to construct a “new paradigm” in economic policy that improves human welfare, not just increases gross domestic product.

But, just as Franklin Roosevelt faced opposition to his reforms, President Obrador likewise faces stumbling blocks. Most notably, factions of his own party upset by his friendly negotiation with President Trump, pressure from the US State Department to not take advantage of Chinese financed infrastructure projects, organized crime, rabiblancos “white asses”, or the owners of the virtual slave labor maquiladoras along the northern border, and international financier predators that own almost all of the private banks in Mexico due to the speculative “debt crisis” in the 1980’s and through the debt negotiations, the International Monetary Fund imposed via the subsequent two administrations of Miguel de la Madrid and Carlos Salinas de Gortari, every aspect of British free market dogma who dutifully implemented a) full convertibility of local currencies with the U.S. dollar; b) total central bank autonomy; c) unrestricted opening to foreign banking and financial activities; d) elimination of all tariffs; and e) massive privatization fire-sales of national assets and the Mexican economy collapsed as a result. Bean production dropped by 37% per capita; milk by 22%; steel by 27%. Overall, consumer goods dropped by 20%, producer goods by 27% for example.

To top it off, on Dec. 10, 1974, the U.S. National Security Council under Henry Kissinger completed a classified 200-page study, “National Security Study Memorandum 200: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests.” The study falsely claimed that population growth in the so-called Lesser Developed Countries (LDCs) was a grave threat to U.S. national security. Adopted as official policy in November 1975 by President Gerald Ford, NSSM 200 outlined a covert plan to reduce population growth in those countries through birth control, and also, implicitly, war and famine, with Mexico included among 11 other countries.

Exemplary of the crux of the matter facing the president is organized crime and its relationship with international finance. Violence now reaches into every corner of Mexican life. During 2018 election campaign, some 145 candidates and campaign workers were assassinated. In 2017, Mexico was third only to Syria and Iraq in the number of journalists killed. In one infamous incident, 43 students from a teachers college in Ayotzinapa, Guerrero, were stopped by police, handed over to a narco gang, and disappeared. Early in his presidency, Obrador announced on Dec. 27 that his government would shut down the highly organized operation, which for decades has been stealing a huge percentage of the petroleum, gasoline and other manufactures produced by Mexico’s state oil company, Pemex, which had been nationalized by Cárdenas in 1938. Cárdenas took this action in the wake of a long-running labor dispute and a decision by the Mexican Supreme Court in support of Mexican oil workers’ demand for higher wages from British and American oil companies. An attempt was made during the NAFTA negotiations to privatize Pemex which was defeated. Financier friendly administrations thereafter starved Pemex for investment by diverting its revenues to spending programs that would normally have been paid for with taxes. Mexico, one of the world’s major oil producers, now imports two-thirds of its gasoline from American refineries in Texas. Exposed in the Mexican case is the single, integrated black economy of drugs, terrorism, arms trafficking, oil and coal robbery, human trafficking, etc. which lies at the core of the British Empire’s “free trade system.” The scale of oil theft in Mexico had grown over recent decades to reach 60 billion pesos—US$3 billion—a year by 2017, López Obrador reported. Oil and gas being siphoned off from Pemex pipelines fill an average of 600 tanker trucks, each carrying 15,000 liters, a day, he said. This theft, dubbed “huachicole” in Mexico, constitutes a “parallel Pemex”; with what has been stolen in 2018. With no solutions offered from his civilian cabinet, the military was deployed to secure Pemex facilities and pipelines and an inter-agency task force was formed to go after the money-laundering flank.

The case of Wallace, Roosevelt, & Obrador

Speaking at an event in Zacatecas January 2019, López Obrador said that more than two million farmers will benefit from the program of guaranteed prices and that it will help Mexico to achieve food self-sufficiency. Farmers will be paid 5,610 pesos (US $293) a tonne for corn up to a limit of 20 tonnes; 14,500 pesos (US $757) a tonne for beans up to a limit of 15 tonnes; 5,790 pesos (US $302) a tonne for wheat up to 100 tonnes; 6,120 pesos (US $320) a tonne for rice up to 120 tonnes; and 8.2 pesos (US $0.43) a liter for milk.

López Obrador pledged to maintain the prices and later increase them but didn’t specify when. He bemoaned the fact that Mexico is forced to import a lot of basic food products. “Corn is originally from Mexico, this blessed plant has fed people for centuries and now because of irresponsible, corrupt technocrats, Mexico buys more corn abroad than any other country. See where we’ve got to,” López Obrador said. “With rice, we’re worse. We’re buying 85% of what we consume. With wheat, it’s the same. More than 70% is bought abroad,” the president said. López Obrador blamed past governments for implementing policies that failed farmers. “They demonized subsidies, they said ‘why would we support the countryside’ and they left the producers in a state of defenselessness,” he said.

Ignacio Ovalle, chief of Mexican Food Security (Segalmex), a new agency created by the government, said farmers will no longer be forced to sell their crops cheaply to unscrupulous purchasers. Government collection centers will be established where producers will take their crops for sale, he said. The first centers will be in Zacatecas, Durango and Chihuahua and mainly benefit bean farmers.

The origin of President Obrador’s policy harkens back to President Roosevelts Agriculture Secretary, Henry Wallace. During his 8 years as Secretary, Wallace administered a vast set of operations, and managed billions of dollars of loans. He used the credit agencies of government to by-pass the Federal Reserve. He was involved directly in both new USDA agencies, and collaborating agencies, including the Farm Credit Administration (FCA), Rural Electrification Administration (REA), Soil Conservation Service (SCS), and Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), which ran the Ever-Normal Granary and the Farm Security Agency (FSA). Through these, Wallace loaned over $6 billion, made 11.5 million separate commodity-credit loans, 1.2 million rural-rehabilitation loans, 20,184 tenant farmer purchase loans—all geared to keeping the farmer in business.

The FCA stopped farm foreclosures and bailed out farmers by loaning four times as much money to farmers in the first seven months of the new program, as in all the previous year, and also lowering interest rates. Between 1932 and 1936, farmers’ prices went up 66% while farm debt went down $1 billion, by shifting creditors from private banks and insurance companies to Federal agencies.

Of special note is the implementation of FDR’s “parity” commodity pricing mechanism, to give farmers an income on a par with other industrial sectors of the economy, and on a par with their expenses of farm production. The Wallace family had fought for this for two generations. It became law with the passage of the McNary-Haugen Act on May 12, 1933.

But by Wallace’s own description, the Ever-Normal Granary was the “action of which I was most proud as Secretary of Agriculture.” This component was added to the AAA in 1938, and called for maintaining reserves of designated vital food commodities, and carryover stocks from year to year, for national security. Wallace said he got the idea from studying Confucius, and it proved a boon when it came time for the nation to begin stockpiling for the war effort in the early 1940s. It also had a great influence on what became the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

Taking advantage of the downtime between being elected Vice President in November 1940, and the January 1941 swearing-in, with Roosevelts approval, Wallace was made a temporary employee of the State Department, and appointed special ambassador. With only his wife Ilo and two close friends, he drove his Plymouth to Mexico, so he could stop and visit out-of-the-way places in order to see the people and nation close-up. When not involved in official state duties, he would stop and inspect both agribusiness and subsistance farmers with Secretary of Agriculture-elect Marte Gomes.” . The conditions he met with were horrifying, given that he was the president of Pioneer Hi-Bred, and the inventor and leading producer of hybrid corn. 8 out of 10 Mexicans utilized primitive stick technology which barely produced enough for a family and a bushel required 200 hours of back breaking work versus 10 by a modern Iowa farmer. Upon returning to the United States, Wallace met with Rockefeller Foundation president Raymond Fosdick. “If the Rockefeller Foundation would undertake to help the Mexican people increase the yield per acre of corn and beans”, he told Fosdick. “it would mean more to the future of Mexico than anything else that government or philanthropy could devise.” Thus the Mexican Agricultural Program (MAP) was born.

This program, a joint venture of the Rockefeller Foundation, the US government and the Mexican ministry of agriculture, introduced the Iowa model to the Mexican countryside: hybrid seeds, monocultures, agrochemical inputs, and mechanization. The changes – both technological and social that this mode of farming effected on Mexico’s agriculture were truly revolutionary. MAP actually began work in 1943 at a site just outside of Mexico City. The program was headed by J. George Harrar. His corn breeder was Edwin Wellhausen, and Dr. Norman Borlaug. Due to the tenacity of Dr. Borlaug under extremely difficult circumstances, breakthroughs were achieved so that between 1943 and 1958, Mexico went from a nation that had to import wheat to feed its people to a nation that exported wheat to other nations.

Those efforts culminated in the Green Revolution, whose improvements in seed genetics made it possible for there to be substantial increases in yields per acre, principally of wheat and corn. His methods were further demonstrated in both India and Pakistan in the mid 1960s, preventing famines comparable to the ones that killed tens of millions under British colonial rule. His success not only saved a billion people from starvation, but demolished the Malthusian and anti-population theories which accept hunger and its aftermath of death as a matter of fate. Hunger is not a fact of nature, but instead, a result of Satanic economic practices.

Another aspect reminiscent of the New Deal is in the area of banking. Construction is underway on 2,700 branches of a government-owned bank to be completed in 2021,when it will be the largest bank in the country. At a press conference on Jan. 6, he said the neoliberal model had failed; private banks were not serving the poor and people outside the cities, so the government had to step in. To deliver on that promise, in July 2019 AMLO converted the publicly owned federal savings bank Bansefi into a “Bank of the Poor”(Banco del Bienestar or “Welfare Bank”) The president said the 10 billion pesos ($530.4 million) needed to build the new branches would come from government savings; and that 5 million had already been transferred to the Banco del Bienestar, which would pass the funds to the Secretariat of Defense, whose engineers were responsible for construction. The military will also be used to transport physical funds to the branches for welfare payments. AMLO added, “They are helping me. They are propping me up. The military has behaved very well and they don’t back down at all. They always tell me ‘yes you can, yes we do, go.’ ” To concerns that the government-owned bank would draw deposits away from commercial banks and might compete in other ways, such as making interest-free loans to small businesses, AMLO countered: “There’s no reason to be complaining about us building these branches. … [I]f private banks want to build branches, they have every right to go to the towns and build their branches, but as they won’t because they believe that it’s not [good] business, we have to do it . . . it’s our social responsibility, the state can’t shirk its social responsibility.”

Here in the United States, during the 1920s and 1930s, the power trust—the electric companies owned by the Morgan Bank, the Mellon family, the Duke family (of tobacco notoriety)—owned electric power generation and electricity transmission in the United States. They forcefully suppressed the availability of electricity, especially to rural America, insisting that the South and Far West did not need development, and besides, they alleged, it cost too much to build power-generating stations, and to string transmission wires to these communities. Consequently, in 1934, only 1% of the farms in Mississippi, and 3% in Tennessee had electricity. Over 49 million rural Americans had no electricity; two-fifths of all Americans were without electric power. The Rural Electrification Administration: Established May 11, 1935 by Executive Order, and authorized by Congress in 1936, the REA was placed under the Agriculture Department. It made long-term, low interest loans to state and local governments and farmers’ cooperatives. Between 1935 and 1941, millions of farms, rural communities, and businesses, which the private utilities refused to service, were provided with electricity. By 1955 close to 89 percent of U.S. farms had electric service. The productivity of the average farmer increased substantially. In 1947, the Rural Electrification Administration was amended to assist rural telephone companies under a similar structure to provide under-served areas of the country that wouldn’t have been reached by private companies.

As in Mexico, the financier connected companies fought tooth and nail to prevent any interference with their monopoly. It might be a different time period and a different country, but the principle of the general welfare “for ourselves and our posterity” remains the same for national leaders to aspire to, versus the vast majority who behave, Hamlet like, fearful of “that undiscovered country” and thus, are relegated to the dustbin of history. Thankfully the citizens of Mexico have a leader who isn’t.

HAMLET: To be, or not to be–that is the question:
Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles
And by opposing end them. To die, to sleep–
No more–and by a sleep to say we end
The heartache, and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to. ‘Tis a consummation
Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep–
To sleep–perchance to dream: ay, there’s the rub,
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause. There’s the respect
That makes calamity of so long life.
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
Th’ oppressor’s wrong, the proud man’s contumely
The pangs of despised love, the law’s delay,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of th’ unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns, puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience doth make cowards of us all,
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o’er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprise of great pitch and moment
With this regard their currents turn awry
And lose the name of action.


The New Deal in Holden Maine

Holden is a small community bordering Brewer to the east. The population in 1930 was 543.


George Brewster, transportation to Augusta CWA $5.00


Amount Raised

Gravel Special Resolve & C.W.A. Road $75.00

Selectmen expenses to Augusta F.E.R.A. $5.00


W.D. Madocks, gravel for C.W.A. $43.98

Guy Yates, gravel special resolve rd. $23.10

Frank Ring, gravel for F.E.R.A. $72.00

Superintendent of Schools

Toilets were built at Wiswell Hill and Clewleyville as E. R. A. projects. The town paid for the material, the Federal Government for the labor.

Cost at Wiswell Hill for material $127.26

Cost at Clewleyville for material $118.30


H.C. Padham, Hauling E.R.A. Food $1.50

Day 8: New York & Vermont

Most of the day was spent driving through New York, arriving in Vermont by nightfall and finishing at a highway rest stop in the middle of Vermont. Given that a lot of the discovered New Deal projects already had photos, it seemed best to drive along Route 20 in order to best reach some of the projects needing photos and efficiently get through the state in time for me to reach Maine by day 10. It was 85 miles to Canandaigua which was our first stop on the route since there were a couple of projects there needing pictures. LINK In downtown Canandaigua is a courthouse/post office where the ND helped build an addition.

Canandaigua Court House
Canandaigua Post Office

Next was Kershaw park right next to Canandaigua Lake, one of the many long narrow lakes in New York. The LND isn’t sure about the park being Kershaw but there was a similarity of the park benches in the old photo minus the trees that are common today. All in all, its a very nice park, well kept up, and popular with the townspeople. I didn’t spot any plaques or markers in the 20 minutes I spent walking around and the staff I talked to didn’t know the history. I guess a newspaper article will have to be dug up to confirm it.

Kershaw Park and Lake Canandaigua
Kershaw Park and Lake Canandaigua
Kershaw Park and Lake Canandaigua

After saying good bye to the pleasant community of Canandaigua, it was 41.5 miles to Auburn where a few ND projects needing pictures were. It was a slight detour to the north to go see the waste water treatment plant. LINK

Auburn Sewerage Plant admin building

After asking to see someone who knows the history of the facility, the receptionist brought me to see the director. He was quite helpful after explaining what the LND was and took me out to see the only building left from the New Deal period. Later, he emailed me old photos during the construction period that I sent to the LND. They still haven’t uploaded any of these pictures though.

Next on the list was the local jail. An ancient building that just exudes unhappiness from its fortress like stone walls. LINK

Auburn Prison
Auburn Prison plaque

Finally, a short distance away was the local junior high school football field Holland Stadium. This was one of the nicer kept projects. It was in very nice shape and the town obviously takes good care of it. LINK

Holland Stadium
plaque near the entrance

Day 7: Milan Ohio & Girard Pennsylvania

After paying my respects at the Edison place, I noticed a few interesting buildings in the town square, of which Milan has a very typical one that was featuring a classic car festival. Being part of the FB Art Deco group, there were a few cars in that style there to see.

Ford Super Deluxe
Ford Super Deluxe
Ford Super Deluxe Hood Ornament
1949 Studebaker Champion
1949 Studebaker Champion
Modified classic
Its been modernized to a nice degree.
The very elaborate Milan town library.

It was 58 miles to Cleveland where I stopped for gas. Not wanting to stay on the highway, it seemed best to instead use route 20 in order to see the country and drive at a more leisurely pace. The intention was to reach the Girard Pennsylvania Post Office because it was missing a photograph on the website, which in hindsight, could have been reached before nightfall if I had gone on the highway. It was past sunset when I finally reached it.

Girard PA post office
Wooden Sculpture Over Entrance

After grabbing a coffee and something to munch on in Girard, I continued up Route 20 into New York until I was too tired to drive. Finding a quiet neighborhood in one of the towns a few miles south of Buffalo, I pulled over and slept in the cab.

Day 7: Ohio

Bright and early, I continued along Interstate 90. Soon after entering Ohio though, I came to the realization that the numerous toll booths along the route would make things expensive, what with my trailer. Exiting on route 49, it allowed me to use route 20 to get east in time to meet my associates near Toledo where they were setting up a political table at a post office.

Endless toll booths!

Round about Chesterfield Ohio, a very small community, I happened to come across an abandoned school building. Owing to the year 1936 written on the building, its assumed that the New Deal might have been involved in its construction of this addition to the taller building. There was no other markings to indicate otherwise. Some documentation will have to be dug up to confirm it. The Art Deco style of architecture suggests such given that Art Deco was a very common style used by the New Deal. The town doesn’t have a historical society which could help though. I discovered a similar design of school building further on in the next town, but it was built slightly before 1933.

Chesterfield Ohio’s abandoned school

A few hours were spent at a small post office organizing with a couple of associates on stopping the British coup against the president. Before arriving, I took a wrong turn and got to go through the very economically depressed downtown of Toledo, one of the atypical post-industrial rust-belt cities that were destroyed by the 1970’s shift from industrial to service economy by the gangsters of Wall Street and the organized crime backed Junk Bond kings. After a pleasant discussion with the citizens and getting a decent response along with the usual hysterical reactions, it was time to continue, and using I475 and I90, went the 80 miles to Milan Ohio, birthplace of inventor Thomas Edison.

Edison Birthplace
Thomas Edison Statue downtown Milan
State Historical Marker
State Historical Marker
State Historical Marker
neighborhood Peacock

The Real Thomas Edison
“Thomas Edison was called by admirers “the Franklin of the nineteenth century, ” and it is not surprising that he should be slandered by his detractors precisely as was Franklin: “a mere tinkerer, ” “uneducated,” “unscientific, ” “an empiricist. ” The Dec. 31, 1995 Washington Post labeled Edison “a grease monkey. A putterer. A mechanic.” As the lie was put about, that Franklin was a “British agent, ” so has Edison been called a Wall Street stooge. It is said that J.P. Morgan sponsored Edison’s work, or that speculator Jay Gould gave Edison his start. These and other calumnies constitute an outpouring of Anglo-establishment rage which is puzzling until one knows who Edison really was.
At the height of their power, the Philadelphia industrial scientific-political grouping discovered Thomas Edison as a young, clever inventor of telegraphic devices. They set him up as an independent full-time inventor.
They encouraged him into astonishing inventions. When they were grievously weakened, financially and politically, they schemed to make Edison famous. Recognizing the force of his genius, they asked him to invent the electric light and tutored him in the history of the field. They protected Edison as far as possible from the brutal sabotage of J.P. Morgan,
their enemy, and they stayed with Edison, through to the victorious electrification of the world. The following report is, as far as is known, the first published attempt to systematically account for Edison in his real relations to the “principalities and powers, ” and to see Edison’s own thinking in the context of America’s technological optimism, something considered quite “incorrect” today.”

Beyond mere slanders by legacy media, today’s historically illiterate youth population has been brainwashed into equating Edison with the most crass of robber barons and someone who merely got rich off of other people’s ideas, notably Tesla, a former employee of Edison. ARTICLE

History of the 152nd CCC Co.

The 152 Co. CCC was formed at Ft. Williams, Maine on May 1st 1933. May 9th 60 men were removed to form the 163rd Const. Co. The 163rd Const. Co. proceeded to Cold River and prepared the grounds for the 152nd Co. The 152nd Co. moved to Cold River May 27th 1933. During the first summer the company slept in tents moving into the barracks as soon as completed in September.

The biggest project completed by the 152 Co. was the construction of the the southern end of the Evans Notch Road. The road built through Evans Notch connects North Chatham, N.H. And Gilead Maine. Although out eleven miles in length the road cuts off a distance of forty miles between these two points that it was formerly necessary to travel. Construction closed on June 1933. In 1935 the road was opened with appropriate ceremonies on September 14, 1936. During this time construction was carried on through the heat and flies of summer and the chilling winds of winter. Much of the notch is in a North and South position and due to it’s altitude there were high cold winds when conditions were pleasant at lower altitudes and in more protected conditions. That part of the road constructed by the 152nd Co. was literally down from the side of the mountain. More than thirty tons of dynamite were used in cutting through granite ledges and uprooting stumps fortified by nature to withstand the high winds and in the winter, when the ground freezes to considerable depth. One hundred and nineteen rods of guard rail have been ruggedly constructed with oak posts and spruce rails. During the winter of 1936-37 men have been engaged in cutting timber for the completion of the guard rails during the summer of 1937.

While at Cold River men from the 152nd Co. renovated the 150 year old Brickett Place, the former home of one of the first settlers in the Cold River Valley. Winter storage facilities for 4,200 gallons were constructed and 500 feet of pipe line laid. A two car garage and woodshed was constructed and the grounds were landscaped. This is now the Cold River Ranger Station.

Before the advent of the CCC there were but 44 ½ miles of Forest Service foot tail in this section of the White Mountain National Forest. Trail crews from the 152nd Co. have constructed 66 miles of foot, ski and tractor trails. In connection with the construction of foot trails two shelters were built, one at Province Pond and one on South Baldface Mt.

Members from the 152nd Co. took a major part in the development of the Cold River Forest Camp. Landscaping was done, storage facilities for 6,000 gallons of water were constructed and 1,000 feet of pipe line were laid. This and four other public camp grounds are maintained by the 152nd.

Some of the other projects completed by our company are as follows: 3,486 acres of Forest Stand Improvement, construction and maintenance of nineteen miles of telephone line, 10,557 acres covered on trees and plant disease control, 1,559 acres covered on timber survey and 1,454 man-days fire suppression. During the summer of 1935 a log lookout tower was constructed on Speckled Mt. This is the furthest east of any Naitonal Forest lookouts. Although other companies have spent considerable time in fire fighting only eight man-days have been given over to that duty by our company. At no time in the company’s history has a fire been caused by accident or neglect on the part of any of it’s members.

On May 23rd 1936 the company moved to its present location near Chatham Center, N.H. The chief project on which the company is employed while at this location is the construction of the Saco River Road between Chatham, N.H. And Jackson, H.H. At the present time three bridges on that road are under construction.

The 152nd Co. has always had exceptionally good relations with the people on the surrounding farms and in Fryeburg, the nearest town of any size, and the company railhead. Company dances have been successfully held and the boys have at times been invited to the Fryeburg Academy dances. The boys attend church in Fryeburg and North Conway taking part in the work and social affairs of the young peoples organizations. Some boys have married locally and made their homes near the camp. Frequently men from the company have found employment near the camp.

We are proud of the record of our achievements and that we have accomplished all of these things with out a single accident causing death, and very few lost time accidents of any sort. We believe that we have a future of like achievements ahead of us.


– Leaders –

Everett Childs, Winter Harbor

Sherwood S. Curtis, Gardiner,

Robert L. Fernald, Levant,

Normand D. Laferriore, Fort Kent,

James W. Mackin, Millinocket,

Dana McKay West Crouseville,

Oral D. McNutt, Houlton,

Lawrence A. Redmond, Skowhegan

– Assistant Leaders –

Henry H. Boutot, Jr. Fort Kent,

Ralph L. Brooks, Clinton,

John L. Clukey, Old Town,

Donald Cushing, Randolph,

James J. Flaherty, Portland,

John A. Merrick Lisbon, Falls,

Hollis J. Knowlton, Vinalhaven,

William Levasseur, Bangor,

Harry P. _elaugh, Portland,

Alton F. Paine, Bethel,

Albert Pa_ardis, Old Orchard Beach,

Percy T. Reed, Seal Cove,

Robert L. Wood, Bethel.

  • — Members —

Carlton L. Bate, Kittery

Floyd L. Bates, Carmel

Charles A. Beaulieu, Frye

Herbert J. Beaulieu, Orono

Roland J. Beaulieu, Augusta

Edwin Berube, Fort Kent

Ralph W. Black, Howland

Emile Blanchette, Frenchville

Louis Blumenthal, Portland

Jean L. Boucher, Sinclair

Lauris Brown, E. Barrington, N.H.

Francis J. Brunette, Portland

John F. Campbell, Portland

Gordon L. Carson, Robbinston

Thomas J. Gastonguay, Limestone

William C. Chandler, Portland

James Charlesworth, Portland

Patrick J. Chishom, Portland

Erlen S. Chubbuck, West Enfield

Stanley G. Cobo, Dexter

Hershell C. Cole, Bangor

John N. Collins, Eastport

Wallace A. Cook, Oakland

Lucien Barbin, Lille

Everett A. Counts, Portland

Charles Curlow, Scarboro

Maurice E. Cyr, Lewiston

Patrick Daigle, Fort Kent

Sylvio Daigle, Fort Kent

John Dean, Yarmouth

Earle A. Delano, Presque Isle

Joseph L. Despres, Soldier Pond

John B. Desores, Rumford

Patrick Deschaine, Fort Kent

Louis A. Desrosiers, St. Agatha

Doniel Driscoll, Portland

William S. Dulac, Portland

Donald L. Ellery, Portland

Thomas B. Ewing, West Enfield

Philip W. Farr, Portland

Lewis B. Faulkingham, Scarboro

Frederick A. Fowler, Long Island

Joseph L. Gagnon, Waterville

Robert L. Gallant, Berlin N.H.

Walter Gerry, Vinalhaven

Hamilton S. Giberson, Oakland

Harold P. Gonzales, Hall Quarry

James H. Green, Northport

Lyn E. Greenleaf, Skowhegan

Richard S. Grondin, Oakland

Lu_ou_ J. Gui_mette, Portland

George P. Guthrie, Ellsworth

John G. Hanson, Sanford

William K. _erdy, Bangor

Wilmont H. Harvey, Otter Creek

George L. Hathaway, Portage

Gerald Matt, Machias

Milford C. Hawkins, Millbridge

Olaf V. Homquist, Vinalhaven

Albert G. Huntley, Rockland

George S. Karter, Waterville

Vernon F. King, Orono

Arthur E. Lamson, Millinocket

Paul L. Langdo, Frenchville

Joseph R. Lavigne, Portland

Edward P. Layte, Portland

Roger D. Leavitt, Naples

Charles L. Leland, Camden

Walter P. Leslie, Portland

Joseph A. Levesque, Upper Frenchville

Frederick F. Light, Coopers Mills

Robert J. Lloyd Rumford

Claude L. Madore Lille

Russell L. Madore Pittsfield

Rino Martin Grand Isle

Rudolphe Martin Grand Isle

Adrien R.Michaud St. Agatha

Cammill J. Michaud Upper Frenchville

Wallace Michaud Keegan

Douglas R. Mitchell St. Paris

Granville I. Mixer Penobscot

John N. McDonough Portland

Leonard S. McMillan Belgrade

William H. Nolan Fort Kent

Edward J. O’Brien Portland

Joseph A. Ouellette Greenville, N.H.

Patrick I. Paradis Frenchville

Rene L. Paradis Biddeford

Eddie E. Par__t Augusta

Richard M Parsons Turner

Joseph T. Pravencher Biddeford

Harold Ramsdell Pittsfield

Gerald F. Rancourt Waterville

Clifton D. Reed North Edgecomb

Federick J. Rock South Gardiner

Henry P. Rollins Enfield

George A. Rowe Sanford

Lawrence Rowe Oakland

Leo F. Roy Lewiston

Leonard Roy Madawaska

Calvin A. Sinclair Guildford

Lucien R. Sirois Grand Isle

Everett Skillings Scarboro

Linwood E. Small Lincolnville

Charlie O. Spencer Palermo

George W. Sullivan Portland

Rene J. Theriault Waterville

Edward V. Thibeau Waterville

Ned Thibodenu Madawaska

William Thompson Brewer

Merrill Thoreson Concord Mass.

Lloyd V. Trueworthy Mattawaumkeag

Carl F. Vickerson Portland

Wallace L. Watson Caribou

Lawrence F. Weimert Portland

Raymond B. White Bangor

Guy E. Williams South Portland

Franklin B. Winter Worcester Mass.

Alvis f. York, Jr. Orr’s Island

Brickett Place kiosk
Brickett House